Epicranius: Frontalis & Occipitalis

 

Muscle Origin

Frontalis: Forehead to Galea Aponeurotica
anatomy-model-face-muscles-088 The frontalis muscle (frontal belly) is located on the front of the head and covers parts of the skull. It is thin, of a quadrilateral form, and intimately adherent to the superficial fascia. It is broader than the occipitalis and its fibers are longer and paler in color. Some sources consider the frontalis muscle to be a distinct muscle. However, Terminologia Anatomica currently classifies it as part of the occipitofrontalis muscle along with the occipitalis muscle. In humans, the frontalis muscle only serves for facial expressions.

The medial fibers are connected with those of the Procerus; the corrugator and the orbicularis oculi mix with its immediate fibers. Its lateral fibers also mix with the latter muscle over the zygomatic process of the frontal bone. At these attachments, the fibers move up and join the galea aponeurotica beneath the coronal suture. The medial margins of the frontales move together for a while above the root of the nose; however, between the occipitales there is a significant, though changing interval taken up by the galea aponeurotica.

Occipitalis: Galea Aponeurotica to Occipital Bone

The occipitalis muscle (occipital belly) is a muscle which covers parts of the skull. Some sources consider the occipital muscle to be a distinct muscle. However, Terminologia Anatomica currently classifies it as part of the occipitofrontalis muscle along with the frontalis muscle. The occipitalis muscle is thin and quadrilateral in form.

 

anatomy-model-muscles-head-801

Insertion

The occipital belly, near the occipital bone, and the frontal belly, near the frontal bone.

The occipitalis muscle arises from tendinous fibers from the lateral two-thirds of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone and from the mastoid process of the temporal and ends in the galea aponeurotica.

Action

Elevates the eyebrow; contracts and retracts the scalp.

The occipitalis muscle function is to move the scalp back. Assisted by the occipital belly, the frontal belly draws the scalp back which raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead. The muscle acts to close the eye, and is the only muscle capable of doing so. Loss of function for any reason results in an inability to close the eye, necessitating eye drops at the minimum to removal of the eye in extreme cases.

 

Epicranius

Innervation – Nerve control

Facial nerve;Temporal branch.

Frontalis belly is innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (Cranial nerve VII) and receives blood from the supraorbital and supratrochlear arteries.

Occipital belly is supplied by the posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (Cranial nerve VII) and receives blood from the occipital artery.

Artery

Supraorbital and supratrochlear arteries.

Occipital artery; Frontalis is supplied by the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery.

Antagonist muscles

Frontalis – Procerus, Orbicularis oculi.

Pictures of muscles

 

Trigger Point Referrals

 

Stretching description

 

Exercises

 

Injuries

 

Treatment

 

Additional Resources:

Wiki
InnerBody

Chandler Physical Therapy © 2014 Frontier Theme